Friday, 12 April 2019

Introduction And Classification of Social Groups

Introduction :-  Groups are an essential part of our social setup, and group living is a natural phenomenon. Birds, Animal insects and humans all live in groups. The absence of a human environment and of group life hinders the development of human traits. Aristotle the Greek philosopher, rightly said, "Man by nature is a social animal" Humans cannot live alone. Group life is essential  and inevitable.

                   Maclver and Page:- By group, we mean any collection of human t beings who are brought into social relationships with one another. 

                   William:- A social group is a given aggregate of people playing inter-related roles and recognized by  themselves or others as a unit of interaction. 

              Green:- A group is an aggregate of individuals which persists in time, which has more interests and   activities in common and which is organized.

                   Ogburn and Nimkoff : - A social group is a collection of two or more individuals who influence one another.  

Characteristics of Group Life 
1. Inter-relation of members
2. Feeling of unity
3. Common purpose 
4. Common behavior 
5. Organization
6.Group norms 
7.Collection of individuals 
8.Common interests
9.Mutual awareness
10.Varying size and dynamics 
11.Stability ( Permanent or temporary)

Classification of Groups - 

 1. Primary Group
 2. Secondary Group 

 1. Primary Group :- 
                         These are groups that develop on the basis of primary relationships. There is fusion of  individualities into a common whole The  primary group is the nucleus of all social organization. The members are friendly, close and intimate and have we feelings Examples are play groups, families, groups of friends partnerships, local brotherhoods, study groups. tribal councils, neighborhood groups and villages .

Definitions :- 
               Cooley:- Primary group is characterized by Sems intimate face to face relationship and it involves The synpathy, mutual help and identification.

               Maclyer and Page:- Primary group is a small   collection of persons who.are having face to  face relationship and sense of we feelings. 

Importance of Primary Group 

  •  It enables the development of personality.
  •  It increases the efficiency of members  and encourages co-operation. 
  • It satisfies all the needs (physical, emotional, o It increases the efficiency of members and encourages co-operation. and psychological, social and spiritual) of an individual.
  • Group members provide love, security and a sense of belonging
  • The individual acquires qualities of kindness, tolerance, love, generosity, mutual concern and affection.

Characteristics Of Primary Groups :-

1. External Characteristics
2. Internal Characteristics

1. External Characteristics :- 
  • Physical Closeness
  • small size l 
  • Continuity of members 
  • Agent of social control 
  • Stability 
2. Internal Characteristics :-
  • Common
  • Common background 
  • Spontaneous relationship 
  • Personal relationship 
  • Limited self interest
  • Shared interest 
  • Importance to human qualities and social  value.
The Authority behind primary groups: - The members of a group are required to obey the authority of a superior, without making any contribution towards the decision-making process.

2. Secondary groups:- 
 Also known as special interest groups, secondary groups are a collection of persons having a secondary or short-lived relationship Examples include industries, political partners, large marketing groups, etc.

Definition :-
                  Cooley :- Secondary  groups are those that are relatively casual and impersonal in their relationship and sense of we feelings. 

        Ogburn and Nimkoff :- The groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy are called secondary groups. 

                Smellser :-  A secondary group is made up of people who share a few emotional ties and who interact to achieve specified goals. People are more important as performers of certain functions than they are as individuals.

                 Schaefer :- The term secondary group refers to a formal, impersonal social group where there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.

Characteristics :- 
  •  Impersonal and indirect relationship
  • Large size
  • Voluntary membership 
  • Fulfils specific needs 
  • Contractual relations 
  • Formal means of social control 
  • Organized group 
  • Indirect communication 
Importance of secondary Group 
     The importance of secondary groups increases because of the increasingly complex nature of groups on the one hand and because of the trend towards industrialization on the other.
  • There is clear-cut division of lab our and a set group ruler.
  • The focus is on getting the job completed,Which results in work efficiency.
  • It provides opportunities for the development of individual talents as vast opportunities for growth are available. 
  • Every person comes in contact with a large set group ruler. which results in work efficiency number of persons, and so their outlook widens.

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