Saturday, 13 April 2019

Functions of the Family

Functions of the Family 

By Davis :- 
      Social functions of the family - four divisions :-
      1. Reproduction
      2. Maintanace
      3. Placement
      4. Socialization of the young.

Other functions : Individual function. 
By Lundberg :- 
     Basic functions of the family -
     1. The regulation of sexual behaviour and reproduction
     2. Care and training of children.
     3. Co-operation 
     4.Primary group satisfactions. 

By Ogburn and Nimkoff :-
     Six Categories 
     1. Affection
     3. Recreational
     5. Religious 
     6. Educational 

By Reed :- 
     1. Race perpetuation 
     2. Socialization 
     3. Regulation and satisfaction of sex needs 
     4. Ecomonic function

By Mac lver :- 
     Two categories 
     1. Essential functions
     2. Non Essential functions

Essential functions:-

1. Satisfaction of sex needs:- 
            It is the first essential function which the family performs. 
Manu-ancient Indian MPs considered sexual satisfaction in the form of family's purpose. Satisfaction of sex instincts creates a desire for partnership throughout life in men. Satisfaction of sex instinct is done for general personality. If sex instincts are suppressed, it can lead to personality degradation and social intervention. 

2. Production and rearing of children :- 
           The inevitable result of sexual satisfaction is procreation.The work of Race Precision has always been an important function of the family. It is said in the Hindu scriptures that man's religious activities can not be consumed until he has any son.

3. Provisions of a home:- 
        The family satisfies the needs for affection by human beings. Man after the hard toil of the day returns home where in the midst of his wife and children he sheds off his fatigue. In spite of other agencies the home is still the heaven and sanctuary where its members find comfort and affection.

Non essential functions:-

1. Economic:-  The non-essential functions of a family are various and varied. It serves as an economic unit. In the traditional family most of the goods for consumption were made at home Today the importance of family as an economic unit has been lessened as most ofThe goods are also bought from the market for food consumption. There is a clear division of labor among men and women. Every family has its own economic capacity. Members run for movable and immovable property, property is an important financial institution that is protected and maintained by the family
The use and transmission of this property is usually determined by the rules of the society. The equal distribution of property is an important function of family.

2. Religions:-  The second non essential function which the family performs is of a religious character. It is centre for the religious training of the children who learn from their parents vanous religious virtues. 

3. Educational:- The family is an important educational agency. The child learns the first letters under the guidance of parents, though, today, he learns them in a kindergarten. 

4. Health:- Similarly the functions relating to health which were performed in the old family, ow has been transferred to hospitals and clinic.

5. Recreation:- The old family provided recreation to its members. Moreover people prefer to go to clubs and hotels rather than having it at home. 

6. Civic: - Family is the school of civic virtues. The child learns the first lessons of citizenship in the family.The qualities of love, cooperation, respect, sacrifice, obedience and discipline have been learned by children in the family for the first time.. Family has been called the cradle of civic virtues 

7. Social:-  Family impart the knowledge of social customs, mores etc to the coming generation. It exercises social control over its members which helps in the maintenance of a well organized society. Family is an important agency social control.

Salient features of a family:- 

1. Universality:- Institution of family is  universal. There was no period of known history in which the institution of family, in one form or the other did not exist. Family existed both in primitive and semi developed societies. It also exists in modern civilized societies. Family is not only found only in human societies but it is also found even in animal societies. It is as such a universal institution. 

2. Emotional basis:- Members of the family has motions for each other. A father has emotions for his wife and children and so is the case with mothers, brothers, sisters, who ail have emotions for each other and these feelings unite them with one another One finds in the family both primary and secondary emotions. 

3. Limited size:-  A family usually means small size organization. Biological conditions and primarily responsible for this size. 

4. Formulative Influence:- Family helps a lot in formulating character and influence of its members. It is responsible for giving expression to the personality of its members. It even changes the very character of its members. This influence is more visible during childhood and adolescence.

5. Nucleus position:-  In our primitive and simple societies family is the nucleus for all social activities. It controls social life of an individual. But even today, in spite to the fact that many functions of the family have been taken over by other organizations. ye still family occupies a pivotal positions in our society.

6. Closed group:-  Family is not open to every individual. Its membership is open only to few selected persons. Thus technically it is a closed group. 

7. Sense of responsibility of members:- None can exclude himself from sharing burden and responsibility or joy or sorrow. All feel that it is the joint responsibility of family. 

8. Social regulations:-  Family members learn to obey family social conduct. It teaches them the lessons of cooperation and makes rules for satisfying social and sex urges. It makes members obey social customs. 

9. Permanency:-  Family is a permanent institution. Though a boy after becoming young gets married and starts another family, yet the institution of the family continues. It is one of the most permanent.

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