Friday, 12 April 2019

Introduction and classification of Social Processes

Introduction of Social Processes:-
In our society different social interactions are taking place which make it dynamic and progressive. But in addition to these social interactions there are social processes which are essential for the study of society. Discussing significance of social processes, some sociologists have gone to the extent of suggesting that the only object of sociology should be the study of social processes. 

Social processes are repetitive forms of behavior which are commonly found in social life. They arise from social interactions, taking place in many ways, which become patterned.

1. Sequence of events 
2. Repetition of events 
3. Relationship of events 
4. Their social results

Classification  Of Social Processes 

A. Conjunctive or Associative Processes 
       1. Cooperation
       2. Assimilation
       3. Accommodation
       4. Integration 

B.  Disjunctive or Dissociative Processes 
       1. Competition
       2. Conflict 
       3. Isolation
       4. Contravention 

 A. Conjunctive or Associative Processes :- 
      1. Cooperation: -  This is one of the most basic, pervasive and continuous of social processes. It is the very basis of social existencc. The term co-operation is derived from two Latin words: co means 'together and operary means to work'. Thus co operation means joint work or working together for common rewards.

            Merrill and Eldrege:-  Co-operation is a form of social interaction Where in two or more persons work together to gain a common end.
           Fairchild:-  Co-operation is the process by which individuals or groups combine their efforts, in a more or less, organized form, in the attainment of common objectives.
            Green:-  Co-operation is the continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished.
                Cooley:-  Co-operation arises when men see that they have a common interest and have at the same time sufficient intelligence and self control to seek this interest through united action, perceive unity of interest and the faculty of organization are the essential facts in intelligent combination.

Types of Cooperation - 
By Mac Iver and Page :-  
                                 Direct co-operation:-  In this two or more individuals perform a similar or identical activity in the same place of work and in tie same time interval. The goal and interest is the same for all the participants. There is physical and psychological unity among the participants.

                                    Indirect co-operation:- Here, the members co-operate unknowingly. Different individuals perform different activities to achieve a common goal Time and place of work need not be the same. There is division of work and scope for specialization.

By A.W. Green -

             Primary co-operation:- This is found among members of a close-knit group, such as family, friends group, and neighborhood.

         Secondary co-operation:-This is the formal co-operation found among members of the modern society not out of love or concern, but for selfish motives, such as, economic, political, religious, educational and other groups.

              Tertiary co-operation:-
Here, one party is forced to co-operate with the other due to circumstances. -For example, after a war the defeated party is forced to accept the terms and conditions of the winning party .

1. Co-operation is the basis of social life. 
2. It is needed for socialization of individuals. 
3. It is a psychological necessity. 
4. It is essential for progress. 
5. It is very useful in economic life, division of labor and specialization. 
6. Co-operation is needed in times of different 
7. Peace, harmony and integration within the natural calamities like floods, earthquake, fire and war national or at international level depend upon co-operation of all concerned.
8. Co-operation proves solution for many international problem and disputes.

2. Assimilation:- 
 Definitions :- 
                  Bogardus:- Assimilation is a process whereby attitudes of many persons are united and developed into a unified group.

             Biesanz and Bicsanz:- Assimilation is a social process whereby individuals and groups come to share the same sentiments, values and goals.

               Ogburn and Nimkoff :- Assimilation is the process whereby individuals or groups when dissimilar become similar, that is, become identified is their interests and outlook. 

3. Accommodation:- It is the first step from conflict to reconciliation and cooperation. Humans cannot always be in conflict with and struggling against their environment and the people who surround them. Even if humans sometimes fail to be in agreement, they must learn to accommodate the wishes of others. 

Coming to an understanding or common dissimilarity does not lead to conflict This understanding or common agreement is accommodation. 
                     Reuer and Hart:- Accommodation is the sequence of steps by which persons are reconciled to changed conditions of life through

4. Integration :--

Each society consists of several groups, Organizations and institutions. For the smooth working of society it is essential that these  should remain interconnected. Social integration consists of the organization of the various parts and organs of society on the basis of special cultural patterns.

              Gillin and Gillin :-  Integration is organization, rather than homogeneity.

Integration is a harmonizing and unifying process which helps in proper organization of structural components of society Characteristics 

1. Socialization: It helps individuals acquire and develop social qualities and the patterns of social life This creates a harmony and synthesis in their mutual relationship 

2. Common aim: The bond that ties the members of society together is common aims and aspirations. 

3. Active relations between cultural elements: Social integration is based upon the organization of the elements of culture. Hence the relationship between the various cultural elements is an important characteristic of social integration.

 4. Maintain harmonious relationship:- 
 between different structures of society. It keeps the society going and makes every individual feel that he is part of society Problems .

Society is becoming complex day by day. It not easy to harmonize various institutional patterns. All homogeneity towards heterogeneity. The process of integration has also become difficult because is societies are moving from of rapid social changes and reluctance to change on the part of many powerful groups and factious Method.

B.  Disjunctive or Dissociative Processes:- 

       1. Competition :- It is the most fundamental form of social struggle. It is one aspect of struggle which is universal not only in human society but also in the plant and animal world. It is a force that compels people to act against one another. It occurs whenever there is insufficient supply of anything that human beings desire.

       2. Conflict  : - In every society, there are bound to be differences in opinion on important matters. These differences may be between individuals or between individuals and groups. Usually it is difficult to achieve unanimity of opinion on all social matters. These differences may be due to personal or collective reasons.

       3. Isolation:- This is the absence of communicative interaction or social contact. It is a situation deprived of social contacts. Both individuals and groups can be isolated. Definition The absence of communicative interaction or social contact is isolation. It is a situation deprived of social contacts.

       4. Contravention :-  It is the intermediate stage between competition and conflict. Contravention is characterized by two main features: a state of bewilderment and covert hatred. For Example- Sometime we dislike a particular person as we do not consider him good or bad In such a situation we are usually confused, a feeling of hatred arises in us and we make efforts to avoid him.

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